Nutrition Programs

Nutrition  of arable, orchard and vegetable crops

See ADOB® nutrition program – select crop group, crops and nutrition technology

Technology:
Physiological functions
  • Participates in the processes of cell division, pollination and flower fertilisation, as well as in calcium, sugar and auxin metabolism
  • Involved in cell wall synthesis and cell wall extension
  • Improves regulation of lignin biosynthesis and xylem differentiation
  • However, B is still the least understood plant nutrient
Highest sensitivity crops

High: alfalfa, cotton, peanut, rapeseed (winter), rice

Medium: clover, cotton, maize, potato, sugar beet, sunflower, sweet corn

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • Highly species-specific
  • Generally occur as disturbed growing points in shoots and roots (alfalfa and rapeseed) or flowers, fruits and rosette shoots (alfalfa, cotton, soybean and sorghum)
  • Distorted or coloured leaves (alfalfa, canola, sugar-beet, sunflower, tobacco and wheat)
  • Reduced flower formation and failure of pollen tube development reduce flowering, pollination, and seed formation (maize, clover, canola and wheat)
  • Stem cracking (rapeseed)
  • Premature & disturbed opening of cotton bolls
  • Discoloration of the root (sugar-beet) or fruit (peanut)
  • Occurs most frequently in dry, high-pH and low organic-matter soils
  • Availability reduced by high rainfall (leaching)
Physiological functions
  • Essential redox-active cofactor in respiration, photosynthesis and C and N metabolism
  • Protects against oxidative stresses
  • Central in cell wall lignification, especially xylem vessels
Highest sensitivity crops

High: alfalfa, oats, rapeseed, rice, wheat

Medium: barley, clover, flax, maize, sorghum, Sudan grass, sugar beet

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • Chlorosis, distortion and necrosis (death) in young tissues
  • Death of growing points, leading to excessive tillering (in cereals) and excessive branching (in dicots)
  • Fragile cell walls, leading to excessive wilting, lodging and reduced disease resistance
  • Male sterility reduces seed and fruit yield, up to compete failure to set flowers
  • Occurs most frequently in light, high-pH, low organic-matter and peat soils (Cu fixation)
Physiological functions
  • Central in many cytochrome redox reactions, and in respiration and photosynthesis
  • Crucial in the functioning of oxidative enzymes (e.g. catalase and peroxidase) and chlorophyll biosynthesis
  • Involved in plant nitrate reduction
Highest sensitivity crops

High: alfalfa, sorghum, soybean, sugar beet

Medium: barley, maize, oats, peanut, rapeseed, rice, rye, Sudan grass

C4 plants require higher Fe than C3 species

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • Interveinal chlorosis of youngest leaves – tips become pale/yellow and leaf margins dry up. May affect the entire plant in severe cases, turning leaves yellow/bleached white
  • Occurs in light, high-pH and low organic-matter soils
  • Also occurs in soils with naturally low Fe content and heavily compacted/waterlogged soils
Physiological functions
  • A cofactor of ~35 plant enzymes, it catalyses redox, decarboxylation and hydrolytic reactions
  • A structural part of 3 enzymes, one of which is SOD (superoxide dismutase). SOD protects tissues from the oxygen radical O2–. >90% of plants’ SOD occurs in leaf chloroplasts.
Highest sensitivity crops

High: oats, pea, potato, sorghum, soybean

Medium: alfalfa, barley, clover, maize, rapeseed, sugar beet, sweet corn, tobacco

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • Most common symptom is interveinal chlorosis in younger leaves
  • Leaves may develop brownish/black specks on affected areas
  • In small-grain cereals, greyish areas near the base of affected leaves (“dry leaf spots”)
  • Occurs in light, high-pH and low organic matter soils, soils naturally low in Mn and excessively aerated soils
Physiological functions
  • Present in nitrogenase – active in nodulated legumes
  • Present in Nitrate reductase – catalyst in NO3 assimilation, keeps amino acid production stable and prevents accumulation of excessive nitrate
  • Involved in production of pollen and seed germination
Highest sensitivity crops

High: alfalfa, clover, faba-bean, legumes, pea, soybean, sugar beet

Medium: duckweed, potatoes, rapeseed, tobacco

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • Plants become pale yellow (resembling nitrogen deficiency)
  • Blocked nitrate reduction markedly increases nitrate concentrations, causing leaf deformation and necrotic edges (e.g. spoon-shaped/whitish leaves in rapeseed
  • Destruction of embryonic tissue in some legumes
  • Poor grain/fruit set due to less viable pollen
  • In legume plants, poor root nodulation
  • Occurs in acidic soils or iron-rich soils
Physiological functions
  • Takes care of the structural stability of many enzymes
  • Highly important in DNA and RNA metabolism, cell division and protein synthesis
  • Central role in the metabolism of the auxin IAA which enhances apical growth
Highest sensitivity crops

High: maize, sweet corn, rice, sorghum

Medium: barley, cotton, potato, rapeseed, Sudan grass, sugar beet

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • Reduced auxin production, leading to smaller leaf blades, shortened leaf petioles and stem internodes
  • Dwarfed morphology, pale leaf tips and interveinal chlorosis
  • Common in high-pH and calcareous soils, mainly due to absorption of Zn to clay or CaCo3
  • Also common after excessive soil application of P fertilisers, which fixes Zn to an insoluble form
Physiological functions
  • Strengthens the mechanical structure of plants by stabilising the middle lamella, which cements the cell walls of two adjoining plant cells together
  • Enhances fruit resistance to pests and diseases, especially at post-harvest stage
  • Improves the development of the root system
Highest sensitivity crops

High: peanuts, rapeseed (winter), sugar beet, sunflower, tobacco

Medium: cotton, potato, legumes, maize, cereals, coarse-grain, small-seed fabaceae

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • Reduced development of new growth and abnormal formation of generative organs
  • Monocots (e.g. maize) show deformed emerging leaves that fail to unroll from the whorl
  • Browning of leaf tips and margins. New leaves are often chlorotic
  • Impaired root growth, which, in turn, leads to additional nutrient deficiency symptoms
  • Normally occurs in acidic and light soils or due to an abundance of competing cations (H+, NH4+, K+, and/or Mg2+)
  • Can be the result of unfavourable conditions for ordinary transpiration (e.g. drought) or excessive moisture (which impedes Ca uptake and translocation)
Physiological functions
  • The central atom of an important part of the chlorophyll molecule
  • Essential for photosynthesis
  • Catalyses key enzymes like ATPases, protein kinases, RuBP carboxylase and RNA polymerase
  • Central role in controlling cells’ pH and cation–anion balance
Highest sensitivity crops

High: alfalfa, cereals, clover, cotton, maize, potato, rapeseed (winter), sugar beet, tobacco

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • Initially, paler green colour of the lower/older leaves. In more severe situations, interveinal chlorosis will show
  • Root growth is inhibited, affecting the development of the entire plant
  • Weakened plant stalks
  • Normally occurs in acidic and light soils or due to an abundance of competing cations (H+, NH4+, K+, and/or Ca2+)
Physiological functions
  • Occurs in the two amino acids Cys and Met, which are the building blocks of 99% of proteins and of some plant hormones
  • Participates in the synthesis of carbohydrates and chlorophyll
  • Also important in plant resistance to biotic stresses
Highest sensitivity crops

High: black-gram, canola, chickpea, cowpea, peanut, pea, pigeon pea, rapeseed

Medium: alfalfa, cereals, forage grasses, linseed, maize, sugar beet, sugarcane, potato, sesame, sunflower, tobacco, wheat

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • Poor growth and reduced yield
  • Foliage symptoms resemble N deficiency, but whereas N deficiency causes leaf paleness on older leaves first, S deficiency paleness is uniform or more severe on younger foliage
  • Leaf veins may be reddish, or lighter in colour than the interveinal areas
  • Reduced nitrogen-use efficiency
  • Decreased tolerance to abnormal temperatures, drought and biotic stresses
  • Found in very light soils and due to leaching/little organic matter
  • Has become very prevalent over the last 20 years due to reduced S content in the atmosphere

Several rules of thumb regarding the availability of soil nutrients:

  • The lighter the soil (sandy texture) and poorer in organic matter, the poorer it is in micronutrients and the more prone it is to losing its anionic nutrients (S, B, Mo) to leaching.
  • Unbalanced application of the major soil cationic constituents (H+, NH4+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) reduces their optimal uptake rates due to mutual competition on root uptake. The same may happen with cationic micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn).
  • Plants face considerable nutritional stress before displaying visible deficiency symptoms. Therefore, professional scouting is required to find these symptoms early on and quickly correct deficiencies, thereby avoiding further stress and serious commercial damage.
  • Soil pH is a major factor in determining the availability of nutrients to plants.
  • The use of modern crop cultivars which consume high NPK rates must be accompanied by adequate and balanced micronutrient application.
Physiological functions
  • Participates in the processes of cell division, pollination, flower fertilisation and sugar, calcium, and auxin metabolism
  • Involved in cell wall synthesis and cell wall extension
  • Improves regulation of lignin biosynthesis and xylem differentiation
  • However, B is still the least understood plant nutrient
Highest sensitivity crops

High: apple, avocado, grapevine, peach, pear, plum, walnut

In most species B is hardly mobile within the plant.

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • Weakening of flowers at flowering stage
  • Failure to develop seeds, resulting in poor fruit development
  • External and internal corky areas in fruit lead to cracking and deformation
  • Severe deficiency causes shoot apical necrosis – apical leaves are chlorotic, narrow, brittle and have necrotic margins
  • Inhibited root growth
  • Very harmful to fruit shape and quality
  • Common in alkaline, over-limed soils and light soils (it is easily leached)
  • Impeded uptake may occur during dry periods and in high temperatures
  • Deficiencies in the soil may occur if the pH is too high
Physiological functions
  • Essential redox-active cofactor in respiration, photosynthesis and C and N metabolism
  • Protects against oxidative stresses
  • Central in cell wall lignification, especially of xylem vessels
Highest sensitivity crops

High: pistachio

Medium: lemon and other citrus crops

Cu deficiency rarely occurs where Cu-fungicides are sprayed abundantly.

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • Reduced yield due to insufficient activity of vital enzymes, specifically in photosynthesis, causing reduced electron transport between the two photosystems
  • Weakened shoot apices
  • In citrus: formation of gum pockets in young branches and brown patches on fruit rind
  • May occur in very light sandy soils and in soils high in organic matter due to Cu fixation by humic acids
  • Can be due to excessive application of N and/or P fertilisers and periods of drought
Physiological functions
  • Central in many cytochrome redox reactions, respiration and photosynthesis
  • Crucial in the functioning of oxidative enzymes (e.g. catalase and peroxidase) and in chlorophyll biosynthesis
  • Involved in plant nitrate reduction
Highest sensitivity crops

High: almond, cherry, grapevine, kiwifruit, peach, pear, pistachio, quince, all cane berries

Medium: apple, avocado, citrus crops, olive

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • Leaf chlorosis on the youngest leaves
  • Interveinal chlorosis on the leaf blade at first (veins remain dark green) and bleaching at later stage
  • Root, stem, branch and leaf growth restriction
  • Root deformation, fruit drop and poor fruit production
  • Occurs in alkaline, calcareous and over-limed soils
  • Also caused by high bicarbonate levels in irrigation water, disturbance to root activity (e.g. long-term waterlogging) and excessive soil Mn application
Physiological functions
  • A cofactor of ~35 plant enzymes, it catalyses redox, decarboxylation and hydrolytic reactions
  • A structural part of 3 enzymes, one of which is SOD (superoxide dismutase). SOD protects tissues from the oxygen radical O2–. >90% of plants’ SOD occurs in leaf chloroplasts.
Highest sensitivity crops

High: nectarine, peach, plum

Medium: cherry, citrus

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • Interveinal chlorosis, extending from the leaf’s midrib to its margins
  • Relatively wide bands around the major veins remain green, forming “herringbone” pattern
  • Inhibited plant growth
  • Found mainly in alkaline soils, soils high in Mg and/or Ca (calcareous, or over-limed) and soils with high organic matter
Physiological functions
  • Exists in nitrate reductase, which catalyses the key step in NO3 assimilation
  • Deficiency reduces amino acid production causing an accumulation of excessive nitrate up to toxic levels for human food and animal feed
  • Involved in the production of pollen and seed germination
Highest sensitivity crops

High: citrus, grapevine, pistachio

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • Symptoms resemble those of N deficiency: pale, smaller, deformed and weakened leaves, markedly reduced flower formation and fruit set, reduced growth and decreased plant yield
  • Abnormally high nitrate content in leaves
  • Reduces the production of amino acids and proteins
  • Availability to plants is limited in acidic, peat, highly-weathered and low-fertility soils
  • Availability also limited by excessive soil sulphates (due to anion uptake competition)
Physiological functions
  • Takes care of the structural stability of many enzymes
  • Highly important in DNA and RNA metabolism, cell division and protein synthesis
  • Central role in the metabolism of the auxin IAA, which enhances apical growth
Highest sensitivity crops

High: pecan nut, pistachio, nectarine, peach, plum

Medium: citrus

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • Poor flowering due to reduced bud development
  • Interveinal chlorosis on apical leaves
  • Severe deficiency causes necrosis of leaves and shoot apices
  • Reduced auxin causes shortened internodes and rosette shoots
  • Reduced yield
  • Smaller, less firm and malformed fruits
  • Reduced resistance to pests and diseases
  • Reduced Ca uptake
  • Occurs in alkaline and over-limed soils and in soils with high levels of Ca, P and organic matter
Physiological functions
  • Strengthens the mechanical structure of plants by stabilising the middle lamella, which cements the cell walls of two adjoining plant cells together
  • Enhances fruit resistance to pests and diseases, especially at post-harvest stage
  • Improves the development of the root system
Highest sensitivity crops

High: apple (especially cv. ‘Honeycrisp’ and Bramley), cherry, grapevine, peach, pear, prune

Medium: citrus

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • Twisted blade tips in young leaves
  • Weathering of flowers and shoot apices
  • Poor yielding
  • As Ca is translocated within the tree by the transpiration stream only (there is hardly any phloem translocation), fruits get little Ca and develop physiological disorders. In pome fruits: bitter pit, superficial scald, internal breakdown, translucent parenchyma. In stone-fruits: fruit cracking.
  • It is advisable to apply Ca by repeated foliar sprays
  • Reduced uptake due to mutual cation uptake competition with H+, NH4+, K+, Na+ and Mg2+
  • High soil P and S and highly leached acidic soils with low CEC may also contribute to unavailability
Physiological functions
  • The central atom of an important part of the chlorophyll molecule
  • Essential for photosynthesis
  • Catalyses key enzymes like ATPases, protein kinases, RuBP carboxylase and RNA polymerase
  • Central role in controlling cells’ pH and cation–anion balance
Highest sensitivity crops

High: almond, nectarine, peach, plum

Medium: blueberry

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • Initially, paler green colour of older leaves, then interveinal chlorosis will show
  • In more severe situations leaf margins have brown spots, curve upward or become red-brown to purple
  • Pre-harvest leaf drop
  • Reduced plant growth, poor flowering, poor yielding and fruit coloration
  • Reduced uptake occurs due to mutual cation uptake competition with H+, NH4+, K+, Na+, and/or Ca+
  • Deficiency is very common in highly leached acid soils, with low CEC
  • As it is highly soil mobile, Mg2+ is easily leached, especially on light soils.
Physiological functions
  • Occurs in the two amino acids Cys and Met, which are the building blocks of 99% of proteins and some plant hormones
  • Participates in the synthesis of carbohydrates and chlorophyll
  • Important in plant resistance to biotic stresses
Highest sensitivity crops

High: banana, coffee, palm oil, pineapple

Medium: coffee, citruses (grapefruit, lemon, orange), nectarine, rubber, peach

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • Poor growth and reduced yield
  • Foliage symptoms resemble N deficiency (but whereas N deficiency causes leaf paleness on older leaves first, in S deficiency paleness is uniform or more severe on younger foliage)
  • Leaf veins may be reddish/lighter in colour than the interveinal areas
  • Reduced nitrogen-use efficiency and decreased tolerance to abnormal temperatures, drought and biotic stresses
  • Common in very light soils, due to leaching and little organic matter
  • Has become very prevalent over the last 20 years due to reduced S content in the atmosphere

Several rules of thumb regarding the availability of soil nutrients:

  • The lighter the soil (sandy texture) and poorer in organic matter, the poorer it is in micronutrients and the more prone it is to losing its anionic nutrients (S, B, Mo) to leaching.
  • Unbalanced application of the major soil cationic constituents (H+, NH4+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) reduces their optimal uptake rates due to mutual competition on root uptake. The same may happen with cationic micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn).
  • Plants face considerable nutritional stress before displaying visible deficiency symptoms. Therefore, professional scouting is required to find these symptoms early on and quickly correct deficiencies, thereby avoiding further stress and serious commercial damage.
  • Soil pH is a major factor in determining the availability of nutrients to plants.
  • The use of modern crop cultivars which consume high NPK rates must be accompanied by adequate and balanced micronutrient application.
Physiological functions
  • Participates in the processes of cell division, pollination, flower fertilisation and calcium, sugar and auxin metabolism
  • Involved in cell wall synthesis and cell wall extension
  • Improves regulation of lignin biosynthesis and xylem differentiation
  • However, B is still the least understood plant nutrient
Highest sensitivity crops

High: beet, broccoli, cabbage cauliflower, celery, mustard, onion, pepper, radish, rutabaga/turnip, strawberry

Medium: asparagus, carrot, lettuce, maize, onion, parsnip, potato, spinach, sweet potato, tomato

In many species B is hardly mobile within the plant.

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • Very harmful to shape and quality of crops
  • Various types of dry rot on the youngest organs
  • Withering of cordate leaves in beet and broccoli
  • Blossom-end rot in pepper and tomato
  • Wilting of flowers
  • Lack of inflorescence formation in broccoli and cauliflower
  • Empty cavities in celery roots
  • Darkening of the roots in carrot and celery
Physiological functions
  • Essential redox-active cofactor in respiration, photosynthesis and C and N metabolism
  • Protects against oxidative stresses
  • Central in cell wall lignification, especially of xylem vessels
Highest sensitivity crops

High: beets, garlic, lettuce, onion, spinach

Medium: broccoli, Brussels sprouts, carrot, cauliflower, celery, cucumber, maize, potato, parsnip, radish, turnip

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • Inhibits plant growth
  • Leaves take on a blue-green colour
  • The surface of middle and upper leaves curls along the veins and their area is reduced
  • Leaf margins curl upward and leaves may wilt and fall
Physiological functions
  • Central in many cytochrome redox reactions, respiration and photosynthesis
  • Important in the functioning of oxidative enzymes, such as catalase and peroxidase, and in chlorophyll biosynthesis
  • Involved in plants’ reduction of nitrate
Highest sensitivity crops

High: bean, beet, broccoli, cauliflower, cucumber, lettuce, pepper, spinach, tomato

Medium: asparagus, cabbage, strawberry

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • Reduced chlorophyll synthesis, leading to reduced growth and yield
  • Very harmful for protected crops
  • Acute chlorosis of the youngest leaves – blades become pale green and may become yellow, white and necrotic at later stages. Leaf veins remain green, fading later than the blade surface.
  • Common is well-aerated alkaline soils, calcareous soils and compacted/waterlogged soils
  • Fe chelates control Fe deficiency very effectively
Physiological functions
  • A cofactor of ~35 plant enzymes, it catalyses redox, decarboxylation and hydrolytic reactions
  • A structural part of 3 enzymes, one of which is SOD (superoxide dismutase). SOD protects tissues from the oxygen radical O2–. >90% of plants’ SOD occurs in leaf chloroplasts.
  • Mn deficiency reduces photosynthesis, significantly decreasing the yield
Highest sensitivity crops

High: bean, beet (root & sugar), cabbage, cauliflower, leek, lettuce, onion, parsnip, potato, pumpkin, radish, spinach

Medium: broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, celery, cucumber, maize, pea, potato, tomato, turnip

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • Pale green interveinal area, progressing to chlorosis of younger leaves in dicots
  • Common in high-pH soil (especially in recently limed soils), soils derived from parent material inherently low in Mn and in highly leached tropical soils
Physiological functions
  • Present in nitrogenase – active in nodulated legumes
  • Present in Nitrate reductase – catalyst in NO3 assimilation, keeps amino acid production stable and prevents accumulation of excessive nitrate
  • Involved in production of pollen and seed germination
Highest sensitivity crops

High: beet, broccoli, cauliflower, lettuce, melon, onion, radish, spinach

Medium: bean, cabbage, pea, tomato, turnip

A particularly important nutrient in the cultivation of brassica vegetables.

Mo deficiency in plants may considerably reduce the yield of broccoli and cauliflower and the quality of cabbages, spinach and lettuce due to toxic nitrate concentrations.

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • Leaves have reduced, narrow blades and curled margins
  • Interveinal chlorotic spots
  • Severe deficiency causes extremely reduced leaf blade – only main veins develop, forming a “whiptail” in cauliflower and broccoli
  • Inflorescence is small, of low quality or totally absent
  • Growth apices very weak
  • Limited availability in acidic, peat, highly-weathered and low-fertility soils
  • Can also be due to excessive soil sulphates (as a result of anion uptake competition)
Physiological functions
  • Takes care of the structural stability of many enzymes
  • Highly important in DNA and RNA metabolism, cell division and protein synthesis
  • Central role in the metabolism of the auxin IAA, which enhances apical growth
  • Adequate zinc nutrition increases resistance to pathogens and herbivores
Highest sensitivity crops

High: broccoli, onion, spinach

Medium: bean, beet, cucumber, lettuce, potato, tomato

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • Reduced auxin production causes shortening of petioles and stem internodes, leading to dwarfed plant morphology
  • Common in high-pH and calcareous soils, mainly due to absorption of Zn to clay or CaCO3
  • Also common after excessive soil application of P fertilisers, which fixes Zn to an insoluble form
Physiological functions
  • Strengthens the mechanical structure of plants by stabilising the middle lamella, which cements the cell walls of two adjoining plant cells together
  • Enhances produce resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, especially at post-harvest stage
Highest sensitivity crops

High: Brussels sprouts, Chinese cabbage, cucumber, lettuce, pepper, potato, tomato, zucchini

Medium: bean, beet, broccoli, cauliflower, carrot, celery, fennel, melon, onion, spinach

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • In tomato and pepper: fruit blossom-end rot (i.e. dark, leathery, sunken spots or extensive area on fruit’s blossom-end)
  • In lettuce and Chinese cabbage: tip burn (i.e. breakdown of leaf margins)
  • Caused by insufficient Ca uptake due to non-optimal soil pH and/or little to zero internal translocation
Physiological functions
  • The central atom of an important chlorophyll molecule
  • Essential for photosynthesis
  • Catalyses key enzymes like ATPases, protein kinases, RuBP carboxylase and RNA polymerase
  • Central role in controlling cell pH and cation-anion balance
Highest sensitivity crops

High: broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, cucumber, eggplant, lettuce, onion, pepper, spinach, tomato, watermelon

Medium: bean, beet, celery, leek, pea, potato, pumpkin, squash, turnip

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • Typically, interveinal chlorosis on older leaves, as the nutrient is readily transported internally to younger organs
  • Occurs due to mutual cation uptake competition with H+, NH4+, K+, and/or Ca+
  • Very common in highly leached acid soils with low CEC
Physiological functions
  • Occurs in the two amino acids Cys and Met, which are the building blocks of 99% of proteins
  • Participates in the synthesis of carbohydrates and of chlorophyll
  • Important in plant resistance to biotic stresses
Highest sensitivity crops

High: broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, garlic, horseradish, leek, onion, radish, turnip

Medium: bean, beet, celery, cucumber, garlic, pea, potato, tomato, watermelon

Deficiency symptoms and occurrence conditions
  • Symptoms resemble those of nitrogen deficiency, but in N deficiency they occur on younger leaves as S is less mobile than N
  • Leaves are stiff, brittle and pale green to yellow
  • Veins are sometimes lighter than the blade, and may be reddish
  • Reduced shoot length
  • Has become very prevalent over the last 20 years due to reduced S content in the atmosphere

Several rules of thumb regarding the availability of soil nutrients:

  • The lighter the soil (sandy texture) and poorer in organic matter, the poorer it is in micronutrients and the more prone it is to losing its anionic nutrients (S, B, Mo) to leaching.
  • Unbalanced application of the major soil cationic constituents (H+, NH4+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) reduces their optimal uptake rates due to mutual competition on root uptake. The same may happen with cationic micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn).
  • Plants face considerable nutritional stress before displaying visible deficiency symptoms. Therefore, professional scouting is required to find these symptoms early on and quickly correct deficiencies, thereby avoiding further stress and serious commercial damage.
  • Soil pH is a major factor in determining the availability of nutrients to plants.
  • The use of modern crop cultivars which consume high NPK rates must be accompanied by adequate and balanced micronutrient application.

Nutrient calculator

Calculate how many nutrients you can deliver to plants with ADOB® fertilisers

Fertiliser
Amount of nutrients delivered per single fertiliser (g/ha)
No. applications per season
Rate per single application (l/kg/ha)
Total amount of nutrients delivered in all fertilisers (g/ha)
Fertiliser
No. applications per season
Rate per single application (l/kg/ha)
Fertiliser
No. applications per season
Rate per single application (l/kg/ha)